The Chapter History of the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity of America

On a certain night, in the late months of the year 1917 (actually November 18, 1917), a group of boys gathered in a synagogue on Larchwood Avenue, near 60th Street, in Philadelphia. Amidst the buzz of voices, a rapping on the table was heard, and President Jules Feinstein called the meeting of the Soathical Club to order. The Soathical Club was an organization that had been established the previous Spring by a group of Jewish students in the West Philadelphia High School for the purpose of banding them together socially. The name was derived from a combination of the words social and athletic, and among the activities was included a baseball team.

The usual procedure at the meeting revealed nothing of phenomenal importance. But with the oncoming of new business there was born a fraternity.

Ponderous Bill Braude arose and in his sincere voice pleaded that the Club be formed into a fraternity, primarily for the advancement of Jewish student interests in the West Philadelphia High School.

No visible hand of God stretched out from the sky that night; no strange whispers were carried by the winds; no spiritual bell was heard ringing,; but in the fertile soil of that group the seed of The Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity was planted, nourished by eleven valiant hearts. The seed had been embedded deeply within the hearts of the boys. Through voicings of unfriendly criticism, internal strife and racial prejudices, the young seed neitehr wavered, faltered nor was it hindered in its becoming a noble tree with wide spreading branches; and still the tree of the fraternity grows with many more branches and in spirit.

The metamorphosis the Soathical Club underwent, its regeneration into the Phi Chapter of Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity, its radical effect upon the members, was nothing short of miraculous. Combined with a fraternal spirit never tasted before, a ritual was drawn up; truly an inspired work, a glorious work, one which stimulated the very essence of the significand of brotherhood.

One of the first matters adopted by the new Fraternity was the selectioin of a pin, an emblem which would certify our brotherhood and be a symbol of all it might stand for in the future. Brother Alexander Meisel was entrusted with this work, and after much deliberation and forethought he presented to the group the design which we now wear as our emblem. At that time, the pin did not have the rituatlistic significance which it possesses today, those being refinements added by the scholastic and ritualistic experts who came later. Yet, its name stood out - The Gleaming Eye.

The second matter of importance considered by the new Fraternity was the selection of their colors, Royal Purple and White. These colars were chosen for the exact significance that they portray today, and so perhaps they represent the original rites of this Fraternity.

Jules Feinstein was elected as President of the Fraternity, still a one chapter organization. Louis Marios was elected as Vice President, Nathan Goldman became Secretary, Benjamin Landau assumed the role of Treasurer, and Harry Katz took the position of Financial Secretary.

In the Spring of 1918, the first affair ever given under the auspices of the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity was held. At that affair, a number of new men were introduced, some of them such as Jerry Abramson and John Borska, brothers who were to exerfcise a powerful influence on the development of Sigma Alpha Rho. By the Fall of the year, Jerry Abramson had progressed to the extent of making himself the foremost member of the group, and he was selected as President to succeed Jules Feinstein.

Under his capable leadership the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity forged rapidly ahead. The former insignificant "Club" had matured into a fraternity that was dominated by the beauty of its ideals. It began to taste the sweets of prestige, of an honored name, of victories, of exerting a potent force in the activities of the West Philadelphia High School.

Through its many years of existence this group accomplished many things opf social and fraternal merit. It was only natural that some outlet be sought for this exuberance of spirit that pervaded the one "chaptered" fraternity. Thus, it was decided that an expansion by the establishement of chapters in other high schools would serve as a great factor in letting other Jewish youth taste the spirit of the first born of the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity. And with this action there was formed the basis of the National Organizers Department, the precurser to the Supreme Board of Chancellors.

June 10, 1921, marked the momentous occassiion of taking in the second chapter within the fold of the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity. In preparation for this expansion the fraternal and ritual minded members of the group had for months been polishing , revamping, and rewriting the rituals and rites of Sigma Alpha Rho, until finally it assumed the proportions and composition that we have today. Thus the Sigma Chapter was introduced, and with a designation as a Sigma Chapter came the appellation of the Phi Chapter to the original body, and the Sigma Alpha Rho became an institution rather than a group.

On the evening of June 10, on the Roof Garden of the Lorraine Hotel, ten members of the Central High School of Philadelphia were solemnly ushered in and formally constituted as The Sigma Chapter, under the newly revised rituals.

A banquet followed the ceremony and the speeches that were delivered hummed with the spirit of fraternalism, good fellowship and the will to do; the new men were instilled witha n enthusiasm that up tho this day has never been dimmed; a spirit that has not faltered; and a loyalty to their fraternity that has been revealed year after year after year by deeds.

One by one as the flower of Sigma Alpha Rho burst into bloom, every high school in Philadelphia was being drawn into the bounds of the fraternity. Nor was this great spirit of fraternalism to be a spark momentarily set off and extinguished quickly. Reaching out in a broad fan-like swoop, the Fraternity drew into its fold successively chapters in Camden, Wilmington, New York and Pittsburgh. It could be truly said that we were now "going places." But with this expansiion came a problem which was vital - the need of a central governing body was recognized; a body which would serve as a connecting link for all chapters no matter how widely they were distributed.

An Executive Council was created to handle the day to day problems of the organization in September 1921. This Council at first consisted of but eight members, for from the Phi Chapter and foru from the Sigma Chapter. Brothers Rosenthal, Abramson, Segal and Herman representing Phi and Horowitz, Good, Buten and Hoffman, members of Sigma.

This Council set up the first plans for the conduct of the National Organization, and today our complex system of constitution and by-laws still hearkens back to the original fundamental laid down by those eight men. It ws they who selected the name Supreme Exalted Ruler for our presiding officers. They likewise named the other national officers, and at their first meeting made the following elections: Supreme Exlalted Ruler, Leon S. Rosenthal; Mortal Exalted Ruler, Walter Greenspan Horowitz; Supreme Exchequer, Alexander David Segal; Supreme Scribe, Philip Joseph Heiman. These men were the first national officers of our Fraternity. This Council served as the bond which wove the different Philadelphia chapters into a much stronger associaion and relationship. In the beginning, composed of only four delegates from each chapter, the Council possessed very limited powers and as a reslut its duties were not many. For the next few years the Council accomplished a fine piece of work in all its undertakings. With the advent of distant Chapters such as Newark and Pittsburgh, it became necessary to form a governing council wihc would include their representation. Obviously the Executive Council had served its purpose, and so, on January 20, 1924, the Supreme Exalted Ruler dissolved the Executive Council, and a few moments later called into session the National Executive Council representing every Chapter in the Fraternity. New elections were held and Leon S. Rosenthal was again elected as Supreme Exlated Ruler. A new Constitution, which was drawn p by the Constitutional Revision Committee under Brother Rosenthal's leadership, was formally approved by the delegates in session and adopted as the new constitution of Sigma Alpha Rho.

In the Convention that subsequently followed as yearly events, meetings of the National Executive Council became more and more complex. Delegates from every chapter were given the opportunity of expressing themselves and introducing resolutions. Discussions of policy and methods grew more and ore heated; the meetings indeed took on the air of the United States Senate. Such baptism of verbal fire served in revealing potentialities of new leadership and in bringing brothers into closer mental as well as social contact with each other.

When the 1926 Convention rolled around, certain notable changes were made in the National Organization. Amendments to the Constitution provided for a new governing body, one with greater power and resources. To create this important unit, the cream of the Fraternity was selected. The Supreme Exalted Ruler, the Supreme Mortal Ruler, the Exalted Mortal Ruler, the Supreme Exchequer, the Supreme Scribe, and the preceding Supreme Exalted Ruler plus three Chancellors, elected annual by the National Executive Council in session which was itself composed of chapter delegates, were to compose this auspicious body. This group was to be known officially as the Supreme Board of Chancellors.

The duties of this Board were to execute all rulings and decisions approved by the National Executive Council; to be the final body of interpretation for both the ritual and the Constitution; to enforce all the decisions of the Supreme Exalted Ruler; to hear all appeals and to decide whatever fraternal mattters which might be forwarded to them by any chapter.

The Board was to meet at least twice a year upon a ten day notice to each member. Upon the discretion of the Supreme Exalted Ruler, the Board was to meet whenever it was deemed necessary to transact any business pertaining to the National Organization. All expenses incurred by the Chancellors in attending these sessions were to be paid by the National Treasury.

Each Chancellor may cast one vote on any matter under the consideration of the Board. When a majority of those present voted in a certain way, the resolution was to be regarded as passed. The Board of Chancellors was also given the power to subpoena any brother and direct him to appear before one of tis meetings to be questioned. All attendance of non-members at these meetings was to be by courtesy of the Supreme Board of Chancellors. Appeals from the decisions of this Board could only be taken to the National Executive Council in session. The Constitution also empowers the Board of Chancellors to unset any officer in the fraternity who has been proved to be incompetent; to declare any chapter inactive; to declare any member of the fraternity inactive or suspended after a fair and impartial hearing.

On December 26, 1926, the first meetings of the Supreme Board of Chancellors, which was composed of Brothers Good, Weiss, Savitch, Cantor, Rosenbloom, Rosenthal, and Goldhaber were held at the Astor Hotel, New York. These meetings which were called to order by Brother Supreme Exalted Ruler Good, witnessed the enactment of a serios of by-laws which provided that the Supreme Exalted Ruler be the Chairman of the Board of Chancellors; that the Supreme Scribe was to be the secretary and recorder of all business transacted within its confines; that all meetings were to be held in secrecy; that Chancellors would be permitted twelve minute speeches on any subject and only with the consent of the majority of the members would permission be given to a Chancellor to exceed this limit.

In the course of these meetings several types of important legislation were effected. First, the Board created a new status of activity, that of life-membership to be granted to all members of the newly formed Alumni Club. Second, it was during this period that Sigma Alpha Rho spread throughout the length and breadth of our local public schools with the induction of three new chapters, Zeta Omega, Jersey City; Zeta Iota, Overbrook; Zeta Xi, Roxborough.

The problem of finances was placed in the capable hands of Brothers Rosenthal, Cantor and Wallner, who were able to liquidate the debts of the fraternity through the timely and fortunate contributions of the Phi and Omega Chapters.

The following year Brothers Rosenthal, Cantor, Adlin were elected Chancellors. The Board this year was confronted with great financial difficulties. The Fraternity had suffered severe financial reversals in the last convention, and every available source of income was stretched to the breaking point in order to liquidate the outstanding obligations. However, the yeaer that followed was characterized by many hopeful signs, such as financial recuperation, fraternal consolidation and conservative expansion. In 1928, an auditing committee was appointed to inspect eh accounts of the fraternity. Furthermore, it became mandatory that the records of Sigma Alpha Rho be held open to all brothers at all times. Another rule passed this year provided that all chapters which failed to pay their per capita tax would be excluded from representation in the National Executive Councils, Supreme Board of Chancellors, nor could the District Councils or Board of Chancellors grant dispensations.

the next year a motion passed by the Chancellors provided for District Council inductions to replace chapter ritual ceremonies. It functioned more and more smoothly until at present it has succeeded in becoming an indispensable organ of Sigma Alpha Rho. It does its work faithfully, unseen and unacclaimed, but is nevertheless indispensable. Through the Board of Chancellors permanent relationships of all chapters have become realities instead of mere myths. It is in the confines of this group that all routine matters are transacted. An efficient body of this sort can accomplish a great deal for the fraternity; an incompetent one may hamper it tremendously. Hence, the importance of selecting the members of this Board from those who have demonstrated their fitness in lesser fraternal tasks wand who have worked their way to the fore. The the Board of Chancellors belongs the verlasting appreciation of the fraternity for services rendered loyally and unselfishly.

District Councils

When on January 20, 1924, the Supreme Exalted Ruler dissolved the Executive Council and replaced it with a new National Executive Council, it became necessary to organize some local body which would combine the numerous Chapters in and about Philadelphia. For this reason, the Executive Council of Philadelphia District was inaugurated , with much the same makeup as the Executive Council, which had recently been dissolved. The first Exalted Ruler of the Philadelphia District Council was Walter Greenspan Horowitz, who at the end of his term was re-elected. Brother Horowitz placed the Executive Council on the same firm foundation on which he had built the Sigma Chapter, and the position of the Philadelphia District Council in the Fraternity has since been fortified until it has become an indispensable feature. Martin Kremer succeeded Horowitz as Exalted Ruler and continued to band together the Philadelphia Chapters in Harmony. Kremer was succeeded by Maurice Pollen, who arrived for the position fresh from successes in the Phi Chapter, and who left the Exalted Rulership to take the Supreme Exalted Rulership. Brother Pollen was succeeded in office by Albert Borish of the Theta chapter, who continued the excellent work of his predecessors. He in turn was succeeded by Brother Benjamin Solomon of the Omega Chapter, who also conducted the duties of this office in the same worthwhile manner of those who had gone before him with the result that Philadelphia District Council now stands as a real bulwark of Sigma Alpha Rho.

Following the adoption of the newly revised Constitution by the National Executive Council in session in Atlantic Ciyt in August of 1924, the Metropolitan District Council, comprising the Chapters in New York City, Brooklyn, Jersey City, and Newark was established. This Council had for its purpose the blending together of the component parts of Sigma Alpha Rho that had been established in the New York area. henry Witner of the Mu Chapter was elected Exalted Ruler of the first Metropolitan District Council. His wrok in this Council did much to establish Sigma Alpha Rho on a firm foundation in the New York area. He was succeeded in office by N. Joseph Ross, of the Mu Chapter, who aslo carried on the work of the Metropolitan District Council in excellent fashion. Brothers Lee J. Graff of the Zeta Eta Chapter and Louis Caminsky of Zeta Omega Chapter were elected for the ensuing term and carried on the work of the Metropolitan District Council in the manner befitting a powerful unit of Sigma Alpha Rho.

In the year of 1925, the Western Pennsylvania District Council was organized consisting of Tau Chapter and the newly created Zeta Phi Chapter. Arnold Weinberg of the Tau Chapter was elected to the position of Exalted Ruler, and conducted his office in the same manner in which he had carried on as the Sacred Ruler of the Tau Chapter, and made that Chapter one of the leading units of the Fraternity. So, too, did his work as Exalted ruler in the Western Pennsylvania District Council make it an outstanding Council in the Fraternity. His successors in office have carried on in the same fine fashion with the net result that Sigma A.pha Rho became firmly established in the City of Pittsburgh.

The Branches

Phi Chapter

With the Constitution of the Sigma Chapter and with the Fraternity itself assuming the proportions of a Grand Lodge, the Phi Chapter now became merely a constituent part of the Fraternity itself. The metamorphosis was not an easy one. The older members of the Chapter, in the habit of deciding controlling features of the Fraternity, were rebellious at being subordinated to mere control of their individual Chapter. Gradually, however, the Phi Chapter assumed its proper place in the firmament of our organization.

At the elections which had been held prior to the induction of the Sigma Chapter, Leon S. Rosenthal had been elected as Sacred Ruler, that, for the first time, being the new title of the presiding officer as provided by the revised rituals.

Througout th year, which was one of readjustment for the Phi Chapter, great progress was made, and at the following elections Benson Schambelin was elected as Sacred Ruler. Schambelin was followed in due order as Sacred Ruler by Morris Foxman, Martin Kremer, Maurice Pollen, Leonard Barrol, Dave Foxman, and Melvin Feldscher. Throughout all these administrations the Phi Chapter kept growing in prestige and in activity. Meanwhile a gret part of its members were interested themselves in the National Organization, and thus contributing to the advancement of the Fraternity.

Sigma Chapter

The ten charter men formed a basis of of one of the leading chapters of the Fraternity of Sigma, a chapter that has contributed a great number of men to the National Organization, having furnished a host of Past Supreme Exalted Rulers and other National Officers. On organizing, the ten charter members elected as their Sacred Ruler, Walter Greenspan Horowitz, who had been the backbone of the organization of that Chapter. Horowitz, by reason of his natural sagacity and shrewdness, enabled the Chapter to weather many storms of criticism and strife, internal and external, during its first few years. Reelected for a second term, he continued with his good work and he was succeeded by his boom friend and supporter, Samuel Sherman Good, who for two years continued the policies instituted by Horowitz. Following Brother Good's administration were elected in succession Benjamin Horowitz for two terms; Allen Adlin, Maurice Schneiman, Joseph Grossman, and Isadore Baskin.

Sigma provided for the creation of a national improvement committee, which was to be composed of a national head who would appoint one man in each district as a member of this active committee. Its success has been every commendable. In addition, a new committee was created for the chapter, whcih was known as the Inter Chapter Relations Committee, whose purpose was to strengthen the ties between the chapters.

Sigma - the Social Chapter - with the motto, "Every active man active" had a banquet on June 10, 1931, commemorating its tenth year of active life.


Theta Chapter

For a moment, let us go back to the year of 1921. On October 17th of that year, the Theta Chapter in South Philadelphia High School was inducted at the Lorraine Hotel as the third chapter of Sigma Alpha Rho. Concurrently with the negotiations for the induction of the Sigma Chapter, a group in the South Philadelphia High School had been making plans for joing the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity. When finally this group was inducted, they brought with them all the pent-up enthusiasm and energy of the fraternal minded Jewish student. They selected as their first Sacred Ruler, Emil Francis Goldhaber, who was later to make a great name for himself in the development of the Fraternity. Brother Goldhaber held this position for several terms and was succeeded by Nathan L. Edelstein, who in turn was succeeded by Louis Sherr, Herman Krakowitz, Meyer Heiman, Martin Berger, Jack Yanoff (2 terms), and Maurice Morton.

Omega Chapter

January 8, 1922, marked the induction of the Omega Chapter of the Northeast High School. It is the fourth chapter to give many men to the fraternity in the interest of the national organization. This group elected as their first Sacred Ruler, Joseph Levitt, who was prominent in setting forth a basic policy that guided that chapter ever since. Brother Levitt was succeeded by Joseph Brandschain, whose inherent integrity and trustworthiness were such as to earn him the appellation of "Honest Joe." Brother Brandschain was so beloeved by his associates that he was re-elected three times. It was only after Brother Brandschain refused further re-election that Henry Weiss was elected as Sacred Ruler. He was followed in due order by Solis Stanford Cantor, Joseph Getzow, Richard Miller, Benajmin Solomon, and Jules Margolis.

Iota Chapter

A dream long cherished was realized when on November 26, 1922, our first distant chatper was inducted. The Iota Chapter of Chester (Pennsylvania) High School was given the rituals at the Majestic Hotel. Immediately the name of Sigma Alpha Rho became a sacred thought in the minds of the Charter members of this Chapter. For a time, Iota had an unwritten law that only twelve new members be admitted each year in honor of the twelve Charter members.

The first brothers to hold office in this Chapter were: Sigma Rho, Abe Good; Mu Rho, Herman Bloom; Kappa Beta, Leon Blumberg; Kappa Mu, Charles Winn; and Kappa Alpha, Harold Brody.

In the early days of the Chapter the meeings were devoted primarily to fraternalism and good fellowship, but as the time wore on the Chapter tended toward the social side of the fraternity.

Xi Chapter

The Xi Chapter of the Germantown High School came into existence on November 26, 1922, at the same time as the Iota Chapter. Adolph Kissileff was the first Sacred Ruler and leading spirit of Xi Chapter. He was followed in due order by Jack Cohen, Jules Sokoloff, George Goldner, Charles Howard White, and Frank Neufeld.

The Xi Chapter became extremely active under the very able guidance of Sigma Rho Harold Catsiff.

Epsilon Chapter

Another out-of-town Chapter was inducted in Camden, New Jersey on October 12, 1923. This was known as the Epsilon Chapter of the Camden High School. With this event, Sigma Alpha Rho became a national body, it being the first chatper inducted outside of Pennsylvania. The first Sacred Ruler of the Epsilon Chapter was Carl Auerbach, and among those who succeeded him were Norman Heine, George Tartar, Samuel Cohen, and Sylvan Grass.

Eta Chapter

On the same occassion, the Eta Chapter of the Frankford High School of Philadelphia was born. Their first Sacred Ruler was Albert Schaeffer, who was succeeded by Abraham Lipson, Charles Zeitman, Joseph Weinfeld, Sylvester Shaffer, Philip Douglas, and Raymond Stevens.

Nu-Beta Chapter

November 30, 1923 saw the entrace of the Nu Chapter of the Newark (New Jersey) High School into the Fraternity. It was the first chapter many miles from the seat of the National activities. Their Sacred Ruler was N. Joseph Ross, who later became a significant figure in the National organization, and who was the first brother outside of Philadelphia to obtain natiional prominence in the fraternity. Brother Ross was succeeded by Fred Sweibel, Brother Targer, Jerry Marcus, Louis Menk, and Brother Weinrob.

Tau Chapter

December 226, 1923 heralded the oncoming of the Tau Chapter in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). This Chapter was inducted at a still greater distance from where the fraternity had originally started. This Chapter being far from the center of the fraternal activity was nonetheless enthusiastic in the conduct of their fraternal development. The first Sacred Ruler was Arnold Weinberg who was followed by Walter Adler, Brother Marcus and others equally as energetic.

Lambda Chapter

On February 10, 1924 the Lambda Chapter was inaugurated in Wilmington, Delaware with the beautiful rituals dominanant in the induction. A third state added to the fold.


Note: Chapter developmentment from first to eleventh have a specific name pattern: the 'f' sound in 'first' was used to build the name Phi. The 's' sound in 'second' was used to build the name for Sigma. The 'th' sound in 'third' was used to build the name Theta. Since one already used the 'f' sound for Phi, one moves to the next letter in the word, 'fourth' meaning that the second letter of 'o' was used to build the chapter name of "Omega." Similary, the 'f' sound in fifth was used for Phi, so the next letter of 'i' in 'fifth' was used for Iota.

Again, the 's' sound had already been utilized for the creation of the Sigma name, and the next letter 'i' for 'six' was also used in Iota's name. In this case, the 'x' would be used to build the name of Xi for the sixth chapter. When it came to the seventh chapter, the same principle holds true with 's' already used in Sigma and 'e' thereby used to create Epsilon. The names of the chapters were thus built upon the sounds of the word for first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh for the first 11 chapters. So, the sound for eighth became the Eta Chapter as eighth sounded similar for the Greek Letter Eta. Ninth became Nu, Tenth became Tau, and Eleventh became Lambda as the e had previously been used for Epsilon and the next letter L could be used instead.

Zeta Chapter

The induction ceremony of Zeta Chapter of Binghampton, New York, was held February 22, 1924. Nine men were given the ritual. An induction banquet was held February 26, 1924. This was the first affair of Zeta Chapter. Since then the chapter had run innumerable affairs, with the spirit of fraternalism running high.

Zeta started with nine men. They quickly reached 31 associate members, 13 active, and several pledges. The officers were always picked with the discretion and the Chapter had been stimulated into great activity. They were quickly successful with social activities. They reputation they had for fine fellowship made them the most outstanding fraternity at the high school, Jewish and American alike. Mathew Savitch was the first Sigma Rho followed by Sydney Gartel and othere who were equally as prominent in chapter affairs.

Rho and Upsilon Chapters

The Rho Chapter came into the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity on April 2, 1924, thus adding to the list that of Allentown, Pennsylvania. The first Sacred Ruler of the Rho Chapter was Abraham Grossman. Several days later another chapter was inducted. The Upsilon Chapter, covering Greater New York, was taken in the 13th of April, 1924.

Mu and Kappa Chapters

Due to the increased desire of men to become brothers of the Sigma Alpha Rho Fraternity, it was necessary to form additional chapters to fill in the new brothers. Thus, it came about taht the Mu Chapter of New York City was installed on May 25, 1924. The first Sacred Ruler of this Chapter was Henry Wittner, who was followed by such men as Leon Rosenzweig, Gabriel Rosenheck, Morton Palitz, and the Kappa Chapter was also inducted on that day. These Chapters drew their men from the high schools in Greater New York.

Zeta Phi Chapter

The year of 1925 marked the birth of Sigma Alpha Rho's 21st Chapter, Zeta Phi in Pittsubrugh, Pennsylvania. It had its origin in a social group of Jewish boys at Allegheny High Schol known as Sera Lugnis. This group was formally inducted as a chapter on April 30, 1925, at the Fort Pitt Hotel.

Zeta Phi's first social season was an auspicious one. It was ushered in with a Fall Invitational Dance followed by a New Year's Party and later by a Senior Play Dance conducted by the Inter-Fraternity Council of Allegheny High School. This year marked the formation of the Council at Allegheny. Zeta Phi, the only Jewish fraternity represented, was a foremost factor in the Council. Later followed the I.F.C. Commencement Dance at Schenly Hotel. In this year, Zeta Phi was actively represented in the sport field with a first rate basketball team.

Zeta Phi has succeeded in furnishing two brothers to the National body, Brothers Framer and Sallen, both of whom were National Organizers of merit.

Zeta Omega Chapter

The Zeta Omega Chapter of Jersey City, New Jersey, came into existence on September 26, 1926. The charter members were composed of the following: Lou Caminsky, "Hank" Markowitz, paul Heyman, Harry Goldenberg, Hal Edelman, who later transferred to the Mu Chapter; Jimmy Mergentime, who also transferred to the Upsilon Chapter; Sam Turkus, later transferred to the Beta Chapter, and Abe Golden, honorary member.

The first year was an uneventful one. They struggled along as best as could be done, meeting every two weeks regularly. Despite great competition from a number of other fraternities, whe were drawing men from the same high schools, they managed to induct new men.

Zeta Iota Chapter

When the new Overbrook High School in Philadelphia, was opened, our organizers after considerable effort inducted the Zeta Iota Chapter on November 28, 1926.

Zeta Xi Chapter

The Roxborough High School in Philadelphia offered good opportunities so the Zeta Xi Chapter was given the ritual on March 7th of the following year.

Zeta Epsilon and Zeta Eta Chapters

The New York district was in need of more chapters so the Zeta Epsilon and Zeta Eta Chapters were given the oaths in November 1927.

Zeta Nu and Zeta Tau Chapters

In November 1927, the Zeta Nu Chapter in Passaic, New Jersey, was formally inducted. The opening of the Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia saw the creation of the Zeta Tau Chapter, which was given the ritual on March 25, 1928.

Zeta Lambda and Theta Sigma Chapters

In December 1928, the Zeta Lambda Chapter was inducted in McKeesport, Pennsylvania.

In January, 1929, the Theta Sigma Chapter was given the ritual in Buffalo, New York.

Back to Nu Beta

In 1925, the Nu Chapter merged with the Beta Chapter to form the Nu-Beta Chapter. The second anniversary banquet was held June 17, 1926 at the Elks Club, Newark.

In September of the same year elections for officers were held and David Meyer was elected Sigma Rho.

In November 1928, Nu Beta absorbed the Theta Beta Rho Fraternity.

The Chapter was led by Arnold Eisen, Ira Weinman, Jerome Marcus and Seymore Zeitlan.

Theta Theta Chapter

The Theta Theta Chapter was organized in 1929 and was situated in New Orleans, way down South. Brother Benjamin Horowitz traveled through the fair city of this Chapter for the purpose of giving the new men the ritual which turned out to be a very impressive and stiffing event. On January the 4th, an Inaugural Dance, a very successful affair, attended by the cream of Jewish life in this quaint city, was held. The boys are very enthusiastic and have given many promises of making the enterprise a crowning point for Sigma Alpha Rho. Their first officer was Romeo Zacharay, Sigma Rho.

The Gleaming Eye

The prolific multiplication of Chapters which at first was regarded as the crowning point of the fraternity's success, threatened to be its nemesis. Such a sudden increase in number necessitated the creation of some means with which to control this ever growing avalanche. The prestige and power of the National Executive body was inadquate for this purpose. Something more elastic was desirable. The only adequate bond seemed to be one that would insure constant inter-chapter contact. Hence, the Gleaming Eye, the fraternity's newspaper, was destined to serve that function. Thus, we find that the history of the Gleaming Eye is very closely interwoven with the entire story of Sigma Alpha Rho.

In the course of its publication, by ascertaining the rising and falling curves of the frequency of its appearance, one could indeed utilize it as a barometer of the fraternity's prosperity, for when we were comparatively wealthy it appeared often, but when we were impoverished, it was rarely to be seen. Originally, the Gleaming Eye was merely one of the routine matters of the Publicity Department, so that the Editor-in-Chief is also known as the National Publican. In 1924, Supreme Exalted Ruler Rosenthal presented to a meeting of the Executive Council the plans and specifications for the establishment of a fraternity paper, to be called the Gleaming Eye. As tthe first editor was selected, a member of the Sigma Chpater, who had previoulsy distinguished himself by his studious demeanor and the seriousness with which he conducted his fraternal work, Harry M. Buten. Along with Brother Buten as Editor-in-Chief was appointed what later developed into a very efficient editorial staff. To Buten's perseverance is due the foundation of the paper. When his editorial staff dsappointed him for the first hissue, he wrote the material himself; when the printer disappointed him he personally assisted in conducting the press; when his circulation staff failed him, he personally supervised the distribution. Under the guidance of Buten, the paper made a very promising debut and continued to make frequent appearances for two years.

The following year with Brother Sam Good as the newly selected Editor, the magazine indeed reached auspicious heights for it appeared first as an eight page and then as a thirty-two page issue for the Convention of that year. However, due to the fact that the regime closed with a considerable deficit, while the fraternity was fighting for its existence, the Gleaming Eye at the same time was almost washed under as a result of these financial woes. Hence Brother Adlin, the 1927 Editor, was enabled to publish but one issue.

In 1928 and 1929, David Kaliner, Phi, who was National Publican, edited seven issues in those two years. Convention issues culd not be published for the same reason that prevented the publication of the paper on other occassions. In 1930, Brother Josehph Pinkenson was appointed National Publican and four issues of the Gleaming Eye appeared. Stress was laid upon national news and for the first time chapter articles were discontinued. In 1931 Brother Pinkenson was again selected as Editor and five issues, the largest number in any one year, appeared. The circulation of the magazine was improved and for the first time in the history of the fraternity the Gleaming Eye was published without the aid of the Board of Chancellors. Financial means were secured through advertisements. Thus, the Gleaming Eye had grown from a small paper to a regularly issues magazine.

Future developments seem to point to an increasing comprehension of the importance and the necessity for strengthening this means of communication and for increasing the frequency of its appearance. Let us not forget that mere size is useless unless there is present a good system of communication which would make the farthest chapter in New Orleasns feel as close to the National Headquarters as the nearest Philadelphia chapter.